The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) fee was established under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) to advance comparative clinical effectiveness research. The PCORI fee is assessed on issuers of health insurance policies and sponsors of self-insured health plans. The fees are calculated using the average number of lives covered under the policy or plan, and the applicable dollar amount for that policy or plan year. Although there is recent discussion in the press about the repeal and replacement of the ACA, the PCORI fee has not currently been repealed. The fee is indexed for future years, and is scheduled to end in 2019.