Photo of Dr. Sandra Urban-Crell

Dr. Sandra Urban-Crell has vast experience across the spectrum of labor and employment law, having handled everything from day-to-day practical advice tailored to her national and international clients’ operational and commercial needs, to complex multi-jurisdictional transactions from strategic planning through post-merger integration. She regularly advises on co-determination matters on the company and board levels, and on outsourcing and restructurings, including negotiations with employee representatives. Sandra is an experienced litigator and has particular knowledge of international assignments, service agreements for board members, managing directors and executive employees (including separation processes), and bonus and benefit plans. Read Dr. Sandra Urban-Crell's full bio.

On November 6, 2018 the European Court of Justice (ECJ) passed judgment on two German cases (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften eV v Shimizu [C-684/16] and Kreuziger v Land Berlin [C-619/16]) concerning untaken paid annual leave entitlement. The ECJ ruled that accrued annual leave entitlements cannot be automatically forfeited if the worker does not place

The Higher Labour Court in Düsseldorf ruled on October 14, 2015, that even after the statutory one-month objection period in Section 613a(6) of the German Civil Code has expired, employees may object to the transfer of their employment based on an incomplete or inaccurate mandatory notification letter if it was reasonable for them to assume

In a February 16, 2015, decision from the Regional Court of Frankfurt a. M. (ref.: 3-16 O 1/14), the court determined that employees working outside of Germany have to be taken into account when determining whether or not the statutory thresholds that trigger corporate co-determination in Germany are met.

In this case, a new shareholder

On March 6, 2015, the German Bundestag passed a law, the so-called “women’s quota” (Frauenquote), which ensures the equal participation of women and men in the management of businesses as well as of public offices.

The Political Context

According to the German government, women are still heavily underrepresented in leading positions. There is

The Regional Labour Court of Cologne (Regional Court) stated in a decision in late November 2013 that a German employer has the obligation to allocate break times of employees in an orderly manner, and presented the possible consequences of non-compliance with such obligation.

In the case under review, the German employer (a nursing home) had

The German Federal Labor Court made a very clear ruling regarding job applicants in Germany who are not offered the position for which such applicants applied.  In the Federal Labor Court’s view, a rejected applicant has no right to know whether another applicant was offered or accepted the position.  (Federal Labor Court, verdict dated April

If a German employee claims special payment for overtime he has performed, it is the employee who has the burden of proof regarding the following requirements:

  1. the fact that he actually worked overtime; and
  2. the fact that the employer explicitly ordered to work overtime or at least has approved or tolerated the performed overtime.

In